The Kyoto Protocol is an international treaty first set up in Kyoto, Japan in 1997. The treaty has a common goal of reducing man-made emissions globally, in an attempt to arrest the damage caused by the greenhouse effect . Each member state has agreed to different parameters, with aims reduce their current emissions based on evidence of past emissions. One has to question the motives of countries not committing to ratifying the treaty. Apart from shrinking profit margins, what is the big picture they have in mind? Though far from perfect, a bunch of scientists say the protocol is a "small but essential first step towards stabilising atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases."