The U.S say that Hussein's forces were increasingly using designated civilian shelters for cover of their military operatives and communications. The Iraqis state that it was well know that the building was used as a civil-defence shelter during the Iran-Iraq war. Each side counters and dispute the claims the other makes. Meanwhile, 408 innocents are incinerated, shadows of their bodies and handprints burned onto the walls.
The Austrian Chancellor Kurt Schuschnigg began his meetings with Hitler in his mountain retreat. Nazi agitators had already been stirring up Anti-Semitic hatred throughout Austria. One month later the military machine that was the German army rolled freely into Austria. In fact, the Wermarcht soldiers were greeted like heroes, hundreds of thousands lined the streets to see them arrive. Hitler's homeland had been welcomed into the Third Reich.
To properly describe how and why the USSR dissolved is pretty lengthy. A number of factors including growing nationalism from individual states, a stagnant economy, the easing of tensions between the USSR and the U.S, Perestroika and glasnost revelations and of course the Chernobyl accident all played significant parts in the demise of the USSR.
"The wind of change is blowing through this continent. Whether we like it or not, this growth of national conciousness is a political fact."
The first wave of Western European colonisation of the African continent began in the 15th century. The end result of the 'Scramble for Africa' meant that by 1914, only Ethopia and Liberia remained independent of European rule. Britain, France, Germany, Spain, Portugal, Italy, Russia and the Netherlands had all lay claim to African soils. Many African colonies helped support the allies in WW2. After the war, African nationalism and the desire for self-determination was on the rise. During 1950's and 60's the British Empire's days were numbered and so began the process of decolonisation. Howard Mac Milligan was Britain's Prime Minister when he made a tour of South Africa in 1960. His speech in Cape Town about the future direction of the continent and Great Britain's involvement were welcomed by some and considered duplicitous by others.
The Casablanca Conference was a series of meetings and negotiations between Allied powers to decide the next phase of the war. Although unified in their statement, behind the scenes, Great Britain was not completely in favour of the "unconditional surrender" approach. There is evidence that some high ranking Nazi government officials wanted to eliminate Hitler and so broker a peace settlement with the Allies.
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After installing successful British colonies in Canada, it was felt that the Empire should extend its influence in the African continent. To my mind, Sir Henry Bartle Frere instigation of war with the Zulu’s seems an act of ego. After discovering diamonds, delivering uncompromising demands and under the pretext of safe-guarding surrounding nations, Frere invaded Zululand. Several extremely bloody battles were fought before the invasions defeated the Zulu nation and it lost it’s independence.
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The signing of the Anglo Irish agreement was a matter of huge contention at the time and it's effects are still seen to this day. So polarising was the decision to sign, brothers who fought together in the Irish War of Independence turned against each other in the ensuing Irish Civil War. The lead negotiator Michael Collins believed that the treaty would allow Ireland "the freedom to achieve freedom." He was shot and killed in an ambush in West Cork, August 1922.
To learn about Michael Collins, click here.
For more background on the Treaty, click here.
Relations between the U.S and Cuba were never the warmest. Fidel Castro's refusal to be turned in the "right direction" lead to trade embargoes and other sanctions against Cuba. In December 2014, after half a century of hostility, President Barack Obama has ordered the full restoration of diplomatic relations between the two nations.
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