The uprising against the conscription of men into the Imperial Russian Army began on the evening of this day, when a group of young Poles began a protest. They were joined in the protest that turned into a revolution by Lithuanian, Belarusian/Litvin and Ukrainian insurgents. There was public support of the revolution across Europe, but other countries did not want to engage in a new war. The revolutionaries were outnumbered 10 to 1 and lost in every one of the 860 battles they fought. After a crushing defeat in 1864, Russia took over. Poland was split into ten zones and all Polish government officials were replaced by Russian ones. They changed the official language to Russian and removed any Polish self-governance. However, the Poles rose again with a new revolution in 1905.
Read about the Revolution.